EVENING PRIMORSE
(Oenothera biennis)

Plant Family – Onagraceae
Group - Dicot


Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose
Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose
Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose
Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose


external image placeholder?w=200&h=196external image placeholder?w=200&h=208
TRAITS

-Prefers full sun
-Stigma of the flower is cross-shaped and the flower gives off
a strong sweet perfume
-Blooms only at night or on overcast days
-Flowers attract large night-flying insects. The nectar can only be collected by long-tongued visitors.
-Flowers have long floral tube that holds the petals well above the base of the flower.
-Grows 3-6 feet in height in poor soil conditions with good drainage
-Lemon scented leaves are alternate
-Blooms from June – September
-Flowers are yellow in color, with four petals
-Leaves are long and broad
-Has a life span of two years (biennial)
-The fruit is a long capsule which contains long seeds that are released when the capsule splits into four sections at maturity (pictured above, bottom right)

GEOGRAPHY

-Grows in dry, open soils along roadways, railways, and in open
fields.
-Prefers full sun

EVENING PRIMROSE SUPPLEMENT

The supplement is made from the oil that is extracted from the seeds. Seeds have up to 25% essential fatty acids. The oil found in the supplement belong to the omega family of fatty acids (generally found in fish oil) and deemed a good source of omega fatty acid.

SUPPLEMENT USES

Primrose has been used to treat the following:
-Eczema
-Pemenstrual syndrome (“PMS”)
-Menopausal symptoms
-Rheumatiod arthritis
-Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
-Breast pain


EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPPLEMENT

Overall, research has not concluded that primrose is completely effective on any of the conditions listed above.

EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT SUPPLEMENTS EFFECTIVENESS

Many people have reported that it has relieved some of the pain associated with the conditions listed above (see section titled “Supplement Uses”). Research has not concluded that Primrose is completely effective on any of the conditions listed above.

POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS

Reported side effects are
nausea, stomach pain, and headache
external image placeholder?w=490&h=407
Distribution Map Legend
Distribution Map Legend

References
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/evening-primrose-oil/NS_patient-primrose/DSECTION=evidence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/oenothera_biennis
www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/plant-of-the-week/oenothera_caespitosa
http://www.medicinenet.com/evening_primrose_oil-oral
http://www.herbal-supplement-resource.com/evening-primrose-benefits
http://plants.usda.gov
http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/evening-primrose-000242